Location [Stds. 1, 3]
Place [Stds. 4, 7, 9, 10]
Human-Environment Interaction [Stds. 8, 12, 14-18]
Movement [Stds. 11, 13]
Regions [Stds. 2, 5, 6]


 Standard 10: Characteristics
and Complexity of Earth's Cultural Mosaics

The characteristics, distribution, and complexity of earth's cultural mosaics

TABLE OF CONTENTS
STANDARD 10 INTRODUCTION: THE CULTURAL MOSAICS OF EAST ASIA

The four countries that make up what we call "East Asia" — China, Japan, North and South Korea, Vietnam — all have elements of commonality, but, of course, there is also great diversity amongst them.

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CASE STUDY: CLOTHING
// CHINA
LINK: The People of China [A Visual Sourcebook of Chinese Civilization, University of Washington] A discussion of China's multiethnic cultures, with maps and photos.

1) Emperor's Robe, Qing dynasty, 18th C; 2) Chuba (Aristocrat's Robe), Qing dynasty, 18th C; 3) Carpenter, 1899; 4) "Sing-song girl," late 19th C; 5) Yi woman in traditional costume, Sichuan province, 1980s; 5) Chinese monk wearing robes in the Mahayana tradition, 20th C

SOURCES: 1 & 2, The Metropolitan Museum of Art; 3, 4 & 5, A Visual Sourcebook of Chinese Civilization; 6, Buddha Dharma Education Association

// JAPAN

1) Noh Robe, Edo period (1615-1868), second half of the 18th C [The Metropolitan Museum of Art]; 2) Embroidered coat (attush), Ainu, Hokkaido, late 19th C; 3) Commoner in Kosode (short-sleeved kimono), early Edo period ; 4) Commoner in kamiko haori (paper coat), Edo period; 5) Buddhist monk of Jishu sect in ami-e robe, Kamakura period; 6) Samurai in chain undergarment and helmet, Edo period

SOURCES: 1, The Metropolitan Museum of Art; 2, The British Museum; 3, 4, 5 & 6, The Costume Museum, Kyoto

// KOREA

1) Hanbok for women, 20th C, based on Joseon dynasty (1392-1910) styles; 2) Hanbok for man, 20th C, based on Joseon dynasty styles; 3) Ceremonial robes for the king and queen, Joseon dynasty; 4) Korean monk wearing robes in the Mahayana tradition, 20th C

SOURCES: 1, 2 & 3, Korea Tourism Organization; 4, Buddha Dharma Education Association

CASE STUDY: VERNACULAR ARCHITECTURE

"Vernacular architecture" refers to the common dwellings that people inhabit and provides a useful entry into how humans interact with their environment and create cultural mosaics — cultural landscapes — often of great beauty but always of utility

// CHINA
.. RURAL ARCHITECURE
LINK: Chinese Rural Architecture [Atlas Magazine] Text by Ronald G. Knapp, photographs by Olivier Laude. Images of rural architecture throughout China.
.. HOME ARCHITECTURE

READING: Homes: House Architecture and Interiors [A Visual Sourcebook of Chinese Civilization, University of Washington] For background on how geography shaped residential patterns in China.

LINK: Yin Yu Tang: A Chinese Home [Peabody Essex Museum] This innovative website with powerful graphics, effective animation, and a compelling narrative presents an intensive interactive view — a virtual tour — of the house and home of the Huang family over many generations. Now situated at the Peabody Essex Museum in Salem, Massachusetts, this remarkable house was disassembled in China's Anhui province and moved to the United States. Another website, The Traditional Chinese Family & Lineage [by UC San Diego professor of anthropology David K. Jordan] will serve as useful background to the Yin Yu Tang website.

.. REGIONAL VARIATIONS OF TRADITIONAL ARCHITECTURE

1) Cangnan county, Zhejiang province, China; 2) Taoyuan county, Taiwan; 3) Beijing courtyard house (siheyuan); 4) Some Chinese residences are truly unique, such as the large rampart round dwellings for extended Hakka families found in southwestern Fujian province.

Please see Standard 10 Lesson Plans for classroom activities related to these images.

// JAPAN
.. JAPANESE HOUSES

Although Japan is significantly smaller than China, Japan's regional divisions are important to recognize. Houses, as well as other aspects of Japanese material culture, are useful in understanding the regional character of Japanese culture.

LINK: Interactive Map of Japan's Regions, Prefectures, Districts, and Cities [Web Japan]

LINK: Japanese Houses [Kids Web Japan] Discusses the history, structure, and furnishings of Japanese houses. WIth a game for visiting a virtual house.

.. SHIRAKAWA VILLAGE: WORLD HERITAGE SITE

WEBSITES ABOUT THE ALPINE VILLAGE OF SHIRAKAWA AND ITS ARCHITECTURE:

IMAGES: Postage stamps featuring the Iwase Family House in Shirakawa-go.
// KOREA

Traditional houses in Korea are best seen today in museum villages, where Korea's regional mosaic is most evident.

WEBSITES ABOUT TRADITIONAL KOREAN HOUSES:

A related topic in the placement of houses is geomancy. Please see Standard 10 Lesson Plans for material on geomancy.

CASE STUDY: LANGUAGE
// THE CHINESE LANGUAGE

Clicking on one of the topics below to bring up the teaching unit, The Chinese Language, in another window:

LINK: Chinese Script and Language [Omniglot] A concise discussion of the origins and history of Chinese written language. With diagrams.
// THE JAPANESE LANGUAGE

READING: SPEAKING AND WRITING [Asia for Educators] About speaking and writing Japanese, with a discussion of "kanji" — Chinese characters adapted for written Japanese.

LINK: Japanese (Nihongo) [Omniglot] A concise discussion of the origins and history of Japanese written language. With diagrams. Also see Japanese Kanji on this website for explanatory text and charts about the use of Chinese characters in written Japanese.

// THE KOREAN LANGUAGE
.. LANGUAGE PROFILE
LINK: Language Profile: Korean [UCLA Language Materials Project]
.. WRITING KOREAN

SHORT READING : The World's Most Incredible Alphabet [Asia Society]
An explanation of the origins and features of the Korean alphabet, han'gul. Includes video interview of linguist James McCawley and visual resource of the script.

LINK: Korean [Omniglot] A concise history of written Korean. With charts of the Hangeul (Han'gul) alphabet.

LINK: Korean Alphabet [Indiana University] An interactive webpage where students can learn to recognize and pronounce Korean characters with the aid of recorded sounds.

LINK: An Introduction to Korean: Chart of Korean Letters, with Pronunciation Guide [langintro.com] Shows Korean consonants and vowels in separate charts, with romanized sounds provided.

CASE STUDY: FOOD
There are many foods that are common to East Asian countries. Two of the more prevalent ones are tea and rice.
// TEA
.. TEA IN EAST ASIA

"Historically, tea‘s origins date back to around 2700 BC. It is thought to have first been discovered in the mountainous areas of China‘s far western Sichuan and Yunnan provinces." [Source: China.com]

Tea culture spread throughout East Asia and eventually to the West. Many traditions in China, Korea, and Japan involve tea drinking.

The maps below show tea growing areas in East Asia and China, respectively. Formosa, shown on these maps, is present-day Taiwan, but the name Formosa continues to be used in names of teas, the most commonly known one being "Formosa oolong." (Oolong is a kind of tea made by picking and drying clusters of three tea leaves and one bud, which are then processed in a particular way to provide a delicately flavored tea. For more on the oolong process, go to The Oolong Tea website.)

LINK: Tea's Wonderful History [Chinese Historical and Cultural Project] A short history of tea with links to references.

LINK: Plant Profile: Tea [Plant Cultures] A short profile of the tea plant, with images. (Below, right — Engraving of a tea plant with flowering stem and floral segments. Source: Wellcome Library, London.)

.. TEA IN CHINA

LINK: The Edible Journey Through China [ThinkQuest] Click on "Teahouse" on the bottom of the page for two sections focused on tea. "History Corner" — for a short history of tea in China — and "The Tea Laboratory" — for an overview of different types of tea and tea customs.

.. TEA IN JAPAN

LINK: Cornell University Teahouse Project [Cornell University] An excellent website for learning about Japanese traditions in architecture, ceramics, and tea drinking. Video clips, photographs, and text illustrate the construction of a traditional Japanese tea house, starting from the seeding of rushes all the way to the finished structure.

SHORT READING : The Japanese Tea Ceremony (Chaji) [Holy Mountain Trading Company] A description of the tea ceremony, the implements used, the tea house, the spiritual aspects. With photographs.

.. TEA IN KOREA

SHORT READING: Korea: The Other Tea Country [TeaMuse Newsletter] An article about the history of tea drinking in Korea.

// RICE
.. RICE IN EAST ASIA

Throughout East Asia, rice is a common agricultural crop, food, and trading commodity. The following short reading introduces the wet rice agricultural system. The link will open a new window: Wet Rice Agriculture in China [Asia for Educators]

Please see Element D Resources for more online resources on rice throughout East Asia,

.. RICE IN JAPAN

READING: RICE: It's More Than Just a Food [PDF] [Japan Digest, November 1993] Rice as a cultural concept in Japan.

LINK: Japan's Secret Garden: Miracle of Rice [NOVA, PBS] A good presentation of rice culture in Japan. With text, photos, links.

RELIGION CREATES AN EAST ASIAN CULTURAL MOSAIC
// BUDDHISM
.. BUDDHISM AND THE SILK ROAD

WEBSITES ABOUT BUDDHISM AND THE SILK ROAD:

.. SPREAD OF BUDDHISM

WEBSITE WITH MAP SHOWING SPREAD OF BUDDHISM:

  • Visions of Enlightenment: The Art of Buddhism [Pacific Asia Museum] An excellent flash website about Buddhism. To get to the Spread of Buddhism map, click on any topic, then click on "Timeline & Map" at the bottom-middle. Then select "Spread of Buddhism" at the end of the timeline (bottom-right).
MAPS: 1) Map showing the northern and southern paths of the Overland Silk Road linking China and the West and the location of Dunhuang [The British Museum]; 2) Map of the Eastern Silk Road [PDF] [The British Library]; 3) Map showing where Chinese Buddhism flourished along the Silk Road [The British Library]
ETHNIC MINORITIES CREATE CULTURAL MOSAICS WITHIN ONE COUNTRY
// ETHNIC MINORITIES IN CHINA
LINK: The People of China [A Visual Sourcebook of Chinese Civilization, University of Washington] A discussion of China's multiethnic cultures, with maps and photos.

LINK: Ethnic Minorities in China [Chinese Culture Center of San Francisco] Historical context and a table of the different minorities in China. Includes populations and regional breakdowns.

MAP: Interactive Map of Minorities in China [New York Times] Explore and sort by geography, ethnic group, and population.

MAP: China's Ethnolinguistic Groups [Perry-Castañeda Library Map Collection, University of Texas]

// ETHNIC MINORITIES IN VIETNAM
READING: Mapping Ethnic Diversity in Highland Northern Vietnam (PDF) [GeoJournal] By Jean Michaud, Sarah Turner, and Yann Roche, in GeoJournal, 57: 281-299, 2002. Discusses ethnic diversity in Vietnam over the past 130 years. This reading is recommended for faculty and advanced students only.
SHORT READING : Return to Vietnam: Culture: Ethnic Minorities of Vietnam [Salem State College] About highland tribes of central and northern Vietnam. With photos.
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