1450 to 1750: The Emergence of the First Global Age
Ming 1368 to 1644
Qing 1644 to 1912
Muromachi 1392 to 1573
Monoyama 1573 to 1615
Edo 1615 to 1868
Choson 1392 to 1910
Thai kingdom in Ayudhya 1351 to 1767 (smaller regional kingdoms elsewhere, incl. Lê in Vietnam)
Deccani sultanates 1347 to 17th century
Mughal dynasty 1526 to 1858
Table of Contents - 1450 to 1750

| Index of Topics for All Time Periods |

CHINA: HISTORY-ARCHAEOLOGY

Ming Dynasty (1368-1644)

Printable MapMaps of Chinese Dynasties: Ming Dynasty [The Art of Asia, Minneapolis Institute of Arts]
Color map showing land ruled by China's Ming dynasty relative to present-day political boundaries. Can be downloaded as a .pdf file.

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Qing Dynasty (1644-1912)

Printable MapMaps of Chinese Dynasties: Ch'ing (Qing) Dynasty [The Art of Asia, Minneapolis Institute of Arts]
Color map showing land ruled by China's Qing dynasty relative to present-day political boundaries. Can be downloaded as a .pdf file.

Splendors of China's Forbidden City: The Glorious Reign of Emperor Qianlong [The Field Museum]
Online presentation of a 2004 traveling exhibition developed in cooperation with the Palace Museum in Beijing. With a video introduction to the exhibition, plus a gallery of images organized under the following topics: 1) Symbols of Power; 2) Effective Leadership; 3) Family Life; 4) The Private World of the Emperor; 5) Religion. Also a Q&A section with eleven commonly asked questions about Imperial China.

MapsRecording the Grandeur of the Qing [Columbia University and The Metropolitan Museum of Art]
This interactive teaching unit gives the viewer unprecedented access to four monumental artworks of the Qing period — four of the twenty-four southern inspection tour scrolls commissioned by the Qing emperors Kangxi (r. 1662-1722) and Qianlong (r. 1736-1795), from the Metropolitan Museum of Art Topics discussed at length include: the postion of the Manchu Qing dynasty in China's history; the importance of water control; silver in China and the world economy from the 16th c to the 19th c.; the extent and variety of commercial activity in 18th c China; and the contrasting approaches of Chinese and European artists to representing perspective in space.

Timeline of Qing History [PDF] [Peabody Essex Museum]

Map of the Forbidden City/Imperial Palace [PDF] [Peabody Essex Museum]
This detailed map of the buildings within the Forbidden City give special attention to the area frequented by the imperial women.

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RELIGION, PHILOSOPHY, THOUGHT

Neo-Confucianism during the Ming

Focus on Neo-Confucianism for the World History Curriculum [World History Connected]
A brief introduction to neo-Confucianism — "the renaissance of Confucianism during the Song dynasty."

Wang Yangming, 1472-1529
Primary Source w/DBQs
Wang Yangming on the Unity of Knowing and Acting [PDF] [Asia for Educators]
Primary Source w/DBQsThe Identification of Mind and Principle [PDF] [Asia for Educators]

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Books of Moral Instruction, Ming and Qing

Yuan Huang, 1533-1606
Primary Source w/DBQs
Excerpt from Ledger of Merit and Demerit [PDF] [Asia for Educators]

Primary Source w/DBQsSelections from The Twenty-four Exemplars of Filial Piety [PDF] [Asia for Educators]

Primary Source w/DBQsSelections from Meritorious Deeds at No Cost [PDF] [Asia for Educators]

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Christianity Enters China

Yang Guangxian, 1597-1669
Primary Source w/DBQs
I Cannot Do Otherwise (Budeyi) [PDF] [Asia for Educators]

Zhang Xingyao, 1633-c. 1715
Primary Source w/DBQs
An Examination of the Similarities and Differences Between the Lord of Heaven Teaching (Christianity) and the Teaching of the Confucian Scholars [PDF] [Asia for Educators]

Also see Astronomy: The Jesuits in China in the Technology, Inventions, Science section, below.

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GOVERNMENT AND ADMINISTRATION

Provincial and Imperial Government under the Qing

Reign of Qing emperors Kangxi (r. 1662-1722) and Yongzheng (r. 1723-1735)
Primary Source w/DBQs
The Qing Dynasty "Sacred Edict" [PDF] [Asia for Educators]
Primary Source w/DBQsWang Youpu's Sacred Edict Lecture: "Exhortations on Ceremony and Deference" [PDF] [Asia for Educators]

Lan Dingyuan, 1680-1733
Primary Source w/DBQs
Excerpts from The Casebook of the County Magistrate Lan Dingyuan: “Depraved Religious Sects Deceive People” [PDF] [Asia for Educators]

Chen Hongmou, 1696-1771
Primary Source w/DBQs
On the Duties of an Official [PDF] [Asia for Educators]
Primary Source w/DBQsOn Substantive Learning [PDF] [Asia for Educators]

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TECHNOLOGY, INVENTIONS, SCIENCE

Astronomy: The Jesuits in China

Lesson Plan + DBQs Exchange of Goods and Ideas along the Silk Roads >> West-East Exchange: Astronomy [PDF] [China Institute]
Unit K from From Silk to Oil, a comprehensive view of the Silk Roads over four thousand years. "What was the importance of astronomy to the pre-modern Chinese state and people? How did the West-East exchange of scientific information along the Silk Roads affect China? Students will study pre-modern Chinese ideas on the relation of the cosmos to everyday life and the political importance of astronomy. They will look at phenomena such as eclipses and supernovae through both (modern) Western and (pre-modern) Chinese eyes."

Essential Question: What was the importance of astronomy to the pre-modern Chinese state and people? How did the West-East exchange of scientific information along the Silk Roads affect China?
Document 1: Astronomy and Imperial Rule
Document 2: The Crab Nebula
Document 3: The Calendar and Daily Life
Document 4: Chinese and Western Almanacs
Document 5: Eclipses and Eclipse Prediction
Document 6: Description of a Solar Eclipse
Document 7: Foreign Astronomers in China
Document 8: What Went Wrong with Chinese Astronomy?
Document 9: The Jesuits and Astronomy
Document 10: Eclipse Prediction Contest

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Other Inventions and Exchange East and West

Video Unit"Easternization" (Not "Westernization"): Modernity Is a Global Formation” [Asia for Educators]
A video presentation with maps and visual images for students and teachers by Professor Sarah Schneewind of UC San Diego that argues that the inventions and ideas that originated in China are part and parcel of the modern West. (Sign-in required; registration is quick and free.)

China's Contributions to the West [PDF] [Asia for Educators]
A comparative timeline tracking various inventions and ideas as they appeared in Chinese and Western histories. Covers many of the items mentioned in the unit Chinese Inventions: Can You Name Them? (above) and spans the period from 300 BCE to 1900 CE.

Chinese Ideas in the West [PDF] [Asia for Educators]
In addition to material inventions that came to the West from China (discussed in the article China's Gifts to the West), Chinese "ideas" also influenced political and social development in the West. This article discusses the Chinese origins of and influence on: the civil service (see note below), alchemy and chemistry, agricultural methods, thought in the Age of the Enlightenment, Western literature, and Western political and economic theories.

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ECONOMY, WORK, TRADE, FOREIGN RELATIONS

Analyzing China's Advanced Economy

Tea Goes Global: Patterns of Migration, Trade, and Conquest in the Indian Ocean Over Time [DOC] [Indian Ocean in World History]
“While tea has been consumed in China for over 2000 years, it took many centuries before Europeans were introduced to this bitter beverage and learned to enjoy it, thanks to the addition of sugar. This lesson traces the history of tea (and tea-drinking accoutrements) within and beyond Asia, beginning in the Classical Era up through the 20th century. The tea trade changed not only economies but also social rituals. Even as Europeans adopted their own tea-drinking habits, they enjoyed drinking tea from imported Chinese porcelain teacups and teapots typically designed with cobalt blue patterns. Eventually Europeans manufactured their own chinaware with designs that looked Chinese – Chinoiserie – but due to differences in geography, Europeans could never produce tea or sugar in Europe. European dependence on imported tea had world-wide consequences.” A lesson plan developed by Joan Brodsky Schur for the Indian Ocean History website.

The China Impact: Images and Ideas of China in the Dutch Golden Age, 1602-1721 [A Visual Sourcebook of Chinese Civilization, University of Washington]
The image of China in Europe originated in the 17th-century Low Countries in which art and ideas interacted, affecting low and high culture. Dutch stereotypes of Chineseness are traceable in applied art from Sicily to Scandinavia and in scholarship from Paris to Saint Petersburg.

AudioThe Trans-Pacific Silver Trade and Early-Modern Globalization [University of Texas]
With the establishment of Manila as a Spanish trading port in 1571, one of the most important economic links in the pre-modern world was established. Spanish silver flowed from the mines of Potosí (in modern Bolivia) through Manila to Ming-dynasty China. The interplay between these two empires created a global financial system that linked far flung parts of the world in a way that mirrors the 20th century phenomenon that has become known as "globalization."

The China and Europe:What is Modern?” [Asia for Educators]
Resource featuring a map of the Silver Trade.

Lesson PlanTimeline of Chinese Inventions [Asia for Educators]

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SOCIETY

Homes and Gardens, Ming and Qing Periods

Homes [A Visual Sourcebook of Chinese Civilization, University of Washington]
A Visual Sourcebook of Chinese Civilization, prepared by University of Washington history professor Patricia Buckley Ebrey, is an excellent resource, with images, questions for discussion, timelines, maps, and suggested readings throughout. This particular unit examines how people constructed, decorated, and furnished their homes during the Ming, in order to gain a better understanding about the resources, aesthetic preferences, and social habits prevalent during that time.

Gardens [A Visual Sourcebook of Chinese Civilization, University of Washington]
A Visual Sourcebook of Chinese Civilization, prepared by University of Washington history professor Patricia Buckley Ebrey, is an excellent resource, with images, questions for discussion, timelines, maps, and suggested readings throughout. This particular unit discusses the origins, design, social uses, and aesthetics of Chinese garden design, which reached its fullest development during the late Ming.

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Women

Primary Source w/DBQsSelections from The Twenty-four Exemplars of Filial Piety [PDF] [Asia for Educators]

Lu Kun, 1536-1618
Primary Source w/DBQs
Preface to Models for the Inner Quarters [Asia for Educators]

Lady Chang's Letter to Emperor Shi Zong (r. 1522-1567), ca. 1566
Primary Source + Lesson Plan + DBQ
Official Petition to the Ming Emperor Shi Zong on Behalf of Shên Shu [Women in World History, Center for History and New Media, George Mason University]

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LITERATURE

Essays, Poems, and Fantasy Tales of the Qing

Li Yü (Li Liweng), 1611-ca. 1680
Primary Source w/DBQs
"On Being Happy Though Poor" [PDF] [Asia for Educators]

Yuan Mei, ca. 1716-ca. 1798
Primary Source w/DBQs
"On His Chair-bearers—A Case of Misplaced Sympathy" [PDF] [Asia for Educators]

Li Ju-chen, ca. 1763-ca. 1830
Primary Source w/DBQs
"In the Country of Women" [PDF] [Asia for Educators]

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ART AND MUSIC

Painting

The Qing Dynasty (1644–1911): Painting [Timeline of Art History, The Metropolitan Museum of Art]
A discussion of painting during the Qing dynasty, with a focus on three principal groups of artists working during the Qing: the traditionalists, the individualists, and the courtiers and professional artists. With 14 related artworks.

Splendors of China's Forbidden City: The Glorious Reign of Emperor Qianlong [The Field Museum]
Online presentation of a 2004 traveling exhibition developed in cooperation with the Palace Museum in Beijing. With a video introduction to the exhibition, plus a gallery of images organized under the following topics: 1) Symbols of Power; 2) Effective Leadership; 3) Family Life; 4) The Private World of the Emperor; 5) Religion. Also a Q&A section with 11 commonly asked questions about Imperial China.

Recording the Grandeur of the Qing [Columbia University and The Metropolitan Museum of Art]
This interactive teaching unit gives the viewer unprecedented access to four monumental artworks of the Qing period — four of the twenty-four southern inspection tour scrolls commissioned by the Qing emperors Kangxi (r. 1662-1722) and Qianlong (r. 1736-1795). Each of the four featured scrolls is displayed online in its entirety, with key details annotated by Metropolitan Museum of Art curator Maxwell K. Hearn. Five background essays by Dr. Hearn and Columbia history professor Madeleine Zelin serve as guides to the historical and artistic context in which the scrolls were created. Topics discussed at length include: the reigns of the two emperors who commissioned the scrolls, Kangxi and Qianlong, as well as key aspects of the Qing government, economy, and art.

Find more art-related resources for China, 1450-1750 CE
at OMuRAA (Online Museum Resources on Asian Art)

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