Primary Sources with DBQs—Vietnam

1000 BCE - 300 CE

Conquest by Chinese Han Dynasty; Revolt of the Tru'ng Sisters

ca. 39-43 CE, Chinese control briefly challenged by revolt of the sisters Tru'ng Trac and Tru'ng Nhi
Excerpts from The Complete Compilation of the Collected Writings about the Departed Spirits of the Viêt Realm: Sovereigns, The Tru'ng Sisters [PDF]

Si Vuong(137-226 CE)

Si Vuong (Shi Xie) [PDF]
In the early third century CE, as the Han empire to the north began to crumble, in northern Vietnam the Shi family led by Shi Xie (known to later Vietnamese as Si Vuong or King Si [137-226 CE]) maintained stability and prosperity in the region.

600 - 1000

Cao Vuong

Cao Vuong (Cao Bien) [PDF]
When a Chinese official tried to double the price of salt traded for the valuable mountain goods, the chieftains rebelled and Nanzhao joined them in an invasion of the lowlands in the 860s. China sent an official, Cao Bien (known to later Vietnamese as Cao Vuong [King Cao]), to drive the invaders out and stabilize the Protectorate.

1000 - 1450

Religious Poetry of Tran king Minh Tong (1300-1357)

"A Chant on the Mustard Hut," by Tran Minh Tong [PDF]
The Tran ruler Minh Tong (1300-1357; r. 1314-1329) was a follower of Thien (Zen) Buddhism, and his poetry reflects both the beliefs held and the efforts at consolidating his realm with its orthodoxy.

1450 - 1750

Scholar-Officials of the Mac Dynasty

Nguyen Binh Khiem ,1491-1585
Excerpt from Nguyen Binh Khiem's Inscription for "Three Belief" Temple [PDF]

The Lê Dynasty Defends Itself against the Champa

Lê Thánh-tông, 1442-1497
Excerpt from Lê Thánh-tông's Edict to the Ancestral Temple on the Champa War, 1470 [PDF]

The Nguyen Court on Scholarship and the Examination System

Selections from The Nguyen Court's Comments on Scholarship and the Examinations [PDF]

Economy of the South during the Rule of Trinh and Nguyen, 1770s

Le Quy Don, 1726-1784
Selections from Le Quy Don's Descriptions of the South in the 1770s [PDF]

1750 - 1919

Hoang Cao Khai and Phan Dinh Phung: Family vs. Nation

Hoang Cao Khai, 1850-1933; Phan Dinh Phung, 1847-1896
A Late Nineteenth Century Debate: Family vs. Nation, with selections from the letters of Hoang Cao Khai and Phan Dinh Phung [PDF]

1900 - 1950

1945 Declaration of Independence

Proclamation of Independence of the Democratic Republic of Vietnam (September 2, 1945) [PDF]

Striving for Modernity

Selected Poems and Popular Songs Regarding the "Modern" Haircut [PDF]

A New Generation of Poets

"Remembering the Jungle: The Words of the Tiger in the Zoo," by The Lu [PDF]