Mongols in World History | Asia for Educators

Fragmentation of the Empire After Chinggis's Death

The first indication of the decentralization and eventual fragmentation of the Mongol Empire was its division after Chinggis Khan's death in 1227.

Chinggis's oldest son inherited the Golden Horde domains in Russia; his second son Chaghadai secured jurisdiction over Central Asia; and his third son and reputed successor Ögödei governed North China and the Mongolian homeland.

Eventually, a fourth section of the Empire encompassed Persia and West Asia and was known as the Ilkhanate ("Subordinate Khanate").

By 1260, these four domains were virtually autonomous and did not constitute one unified empire.

This detail from a Persian miniature painting shows Chinggis Khan greeting his four principal sons.

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Breakup of the Mongol Empire 1294