300 to 600 CE: Expanding Zones of Exchange and Encounter
Period of Disunity (Three Kingdoms, Jin, Northern & Southern Dynasties) 220 to 589 CE
Kofun ca.200 to 538 CE
Asuka 538 to 710 CE
Three Kingdoms (Silla, Koguryo, Paekche) ca. 57 BCE to 668 CE (Kaya 42 to 526 CE)
Bronze Age and Iron Age Southeast Asia ca. 1,500 to 500 CE
Gupta ca.321 to 500 CE

KOREA 300-600 CE

Three Kingdoms Period: Koguryŏ, Paekche, and Silla (57 BCE to 668 CE);
Kaya Federation (42 to 562 CE)

Korea, 1-500 A.D. [Timeline of Art History, The Metropolitan Museum of Art]
"With the destruction of the Han Chinese military commandery Lelang in 313 A.D., and the division of the peninsula among the three kingdoms of Koguryŏ (in the north), Paekche (in the southwest), and Silla (in the southeast), along with the small confederation of city-states known as the Kaya Federation (in the region between Paekche and Silla), a critical new era in Korean history dawns." With a period overview, list of key events, and six related artworks.

Three Kingdoms, Korea [The Art of Asia, Minneapolis Institute of Arts]
"From the first century B.C. until the 7th century, Korea was divided into three states." A brief one-paragraph overview of the Koguryŏ, Paekche and Silla kingdoms of Korea, along with images of three objects representative of the period.

Golden Treasures: The Royal Tombs of Silla [Timeline of Art History, The Metropolitan Museum of Art]
A short introduction, with images of six artifacts, of which four are found in the museum's collection.


Buddhism Reaches Korean Peninsula, 372 CE;
Buddhism Officially Recognized as State Religion by Silla, 552 CE

Korean Buddhist Sculpture (5th-9th Century) [Timeline of Art History, The Metropolitan Museum of Art]
An excellent overview, with images of five sculptures, of which two are found in the museum's collection.

Hyecho's Journey [University of Michigan/LSA]
In the year 721, a young Korean Buddhist monk named Hyecho set out on what would become one of the most extraordinary journeys in the history of Buddhism. Sailing first to China, Hyecho traveled by sea and over land to visit the many Buddhist holy sites of South Asia. He wandered as far west as Arabia before turning east on the Silk Road and finding his way back to northern China. Traveling farther than any known Buddhist pilgrim, Hyecho remarkably completed his pilgrimage in three years—and lived to tell the tale.

The Origins of Buddhism [Asia Society]
"A short essay that explores how Buddhism grew out of Hinduism and spread from India to the rest of Asia. How does Buddhism vary from place to place, sect to sect? Learn about how the spread of ideas combine of new beliefs with existing thoughts and practices."

Foundations and Transformations of Buddhism: An Overview [ExEAS, Columbia University]
These materials are designed to serve as background materials on what Buddhism is, how it developed and spread, and how Buddhist traditions differ.

Ox-Herding: Stages of Zen Practice [ExEAS, Columbia University]
The ten ox-herding pictures and commentaries presented here depict the stages of practice leading to the enlightenment at which Zen (Chan) Buddhism aims. The story of the ox and oxherd is an old Taoist story, updated and modified by a twelfth-century Chinese Buddhist master to explain the path to enlightenment.

Buddhist Art in East Asia: Three Introductory Lessons Towards Visual Literacy [ExEAS, Columbia University]
The most immediate goal of this unit is to familiarize students with a few examples from the vast array of East Asian Buddhist art. A more general goal is to achieve visual literacy, which means being able to analyze and articulate how art conveys meaning to and solicits reactions from its audience.

AFE Special Topic GuideBuddhism [OMuRAA, Asia for Educators]
AFE's compilation of recommended resources about Buddhism on OMuRAA, Online Museum Resources on Asian Art.


Sondok, Silla Queen (ca. 582-647)

Ten Essential Women for a World History Class: Sondok, Silla Queen [World History Connected, University of Illinois]
Article about Queen Sondok, who "fought off rival kingdoms and the Chinese to continue the consolidation of Korea, built major temples, the oldest existing observatory in Asia, and bolstered Buddhist links between China and Japan."

Queen Sondok, Silla Dynasty [Women in World History]
A brief overview of Queen Sondok's life and times.

Famous Koreans: Six Portraits: Queen Sondok [PDF] [Education About Asia, Association for Asian Studies]
Lesson plan designed "to provide an opportunity for students to learn about famous Koreans through readings and/or dramatizations." Brief overviews of the lives of six nodiv figures in Korea's history, including the Silla Queen, Sondok. Each overview is imagined as a first-person narrative written by the historical figure.

Note to Teachers • The journal Education about Asia has many excellent teaching resources on-line on all topics related to East, South and SE Asia.

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