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1000 BCE-300 CE
Conquest by Chinese Han Dynasty; Revolt of the Tru'ng Sisters

ca. 39-43 CE, Chinese control briefly challenged by revolt of the sisters Tru'ng Trac and Tru'ng Nhi
Excerpts from The Complete Compilation of the Collected Writings about the Departed Spirits of the Viêt Realm: Sovereigns, The Tru'ng Sisters [PDF]

Si Vuong (137-226 CE)

Si Vuong (Shi Xie) [PDF]
In the early third century CE, as the Han empire to the north began to crumble, in northern Vietnam the Shi family led by Shi Xie (known to later Vietnamese as Si Vuong or King Si [137-226 CE]) maintained stability and prosperity in the region.

Cao Vuong

Cao Vuong (Cao Bien) [PDF]
When a Chinese official tried to double the price of salt traded for the valuable mountain goods, the chieftains rebelled and Nanzhao joined them in an invasion of the lowlands in the 860s. China sent an official, Cao Bien (known to later Vietnamese as Cao Vuong [King Cao]), to drive the invaders out and stabilize the Protectorate.

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Religious Poetry of Tran king Minh Tong (1300-1357)

"A Chant on the Mustard Hut," by Tran Minh Tong [PDF]
The Tran ruler Minh Tong (1300-1357; r. 1314-1329) was a follower of Thien (Zen) Buddhism, and his poetry reflects both the beliefs held and the efforts at consolidating his realm with its orthodoxy.

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Scholar-Officials of the Mac Dynasty
The Lê Dynasty Defends Itself against the Champa
Hoang Cao Khai and Phan Dinh Phung: Family vs. Nation
The Nguyen Court on Scholarship and the Examination System
Economy of the South during the Rule of Trinh and Nguyen, 1770s
1945 Declaration of Independence
Striving for Modernity
A New Generation of Poets
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