4000 to 1000 BCE: Early Civilizations and the Emergence of Pastoral Peoples
Neolithic China ca. 10,000 to 2,000 BCE
Xia, Shang, Zhou ca. 2,100 to 771 BCE
Neolithic Japan, Jomon ca. 10,500 to 300 BCE
Neolithic Korea ca. 7,000 to 900 BCE
Neolithic Southeast Asia ca. 7,000 to 1,500 BCE
Bronze Age ca. 1,500 to 500 CE
Neolithic South Asia ca. 9,000 to 1,000 BCE Indus Valley/Harappan ca. 2,600 to 800 BCE
Table of Contents - 4000 to 1000 BCE

| Index of Topics for All Time Periods |

SOUTH ASIA: HISTORY-ARCHAEOLOGY

Neolithic Period; Indus Valley/Early Harappan Period

ca. 9,000 to 1,000 BCE
India: A Historical Overview [Asia Society]
Background reading about "the people and characteristics of India's historical eras, from the early Indus River Valley civilization, through the Mughal period to present day."

South Asia, 8,000-2,000 B.C. [Timeline of Art History, The Metropolitan Museum of Art]
"South Asia is the center of one of the great ancient civilizations of the world—the Indus Valley/Harappan civilization in present-day Pakistan and northwestern India. Copper metallurgy, stone bead making, and seal carving develop in conjunction with the elaboration of ceramics, some decorated with an early form of writing." With a period overview, list of key events, and three related artworks.

TimelineThe Story of India: Beginnings [PBS]
Excellent annotated timeline with text, images, and video clips throughout.

Indus Valley/Harappan and Late Harappan/Vedic Periods

ca. 2,600 to 800 BCE
South Asia, 2,000-1,000 B.C. [Timeline of Art History, The Metropolitan Museum of Art]
"As the culture of the great Indus Valley civilization declines, new languages and cultural orientations are introduced into South Asia by people migrating from the northwest." With a period overview, list of key events, and four related artworks.

Ancient India: Indus Valley [The British Museum]
A unit on "the growth of civilization around the Indus Valley. Users can explore the ancient Indus Valley city of Mohenjo-Daro and look at some of the artefacts found by archaeologists from this excavation." Select the "Staff Room" link at left for a teacher's guide to this website and its contents.

Indus Civilization Geography [Harappa.com]
An introduction to the major archaeological sites of the Indus Valley civilization. With maps and images.

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LANGUAGE

The Indus Script

ca. 2,600 to 1,700 BCE

Ancient India: Writing [The British Museum]
A unit on "the numerous scripts used in Ancient India. An 'epigraphy' activity allows users to investigate one of the undeciphered Indus scripts." Select the "Staff Room" link at left for a teacher's guide to this website and its contents.

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ART

Sculpture and Figurines

Embodying Indus Life: Terra Cotta Figurines from Harappa [Harappa.com]
With more than 70 examples of anthropomorphic and terra-cotta figurines from Harappa and other Indus civilization archaeological sites. Text by Sharri R. Clark, Ph.D., Harvard University.

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