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SOUTH ASIA: HISTORY-ARCHAEOLOGY
Neolithic Period; Indus Valley/Early Harappan Period

ca. 9,000 to 1,000 BCE
India: A Historical Overview [Asia Society]
Background reading about "the people and characteristics of India's historical eras, from the early Indus River Valley civilization, through the Mughal period to present day."

South Asia, 8,000-2,000 B.C. [Timeline of Art History, The Metropolitan Museum of Art]
"South Asia is the center of one of the great ancient civilizations of the world—the Indus Valley/Harappan civilization in present-day Pakistan and northwestern India. Copper metallurgy, stone bead making, and seal carving develop in conjunction with the elaboration of ceramics, some decorated with an early form of writing." With a period overview, list of key events, and three related artworks.

TimelineThe Story of India: Beginnings [PBS]
Excellent annotated timeline with text, images, and video clips throughout.

Indus Valley/Harappan and Late Harappan/Vedic Periods

ca. 2,600 to 800 BCE
South Asia, 2,000-1,000 B.C. [Timeline of Art History, The Metropolitan Museum of Art]
"As the culture of the great Indus Valley civilization declines, new languages and cultural orientations are introduced into South Asia by people migrating from the northwest." With a period overview, list of key events, and four related artworks.

Ancient India: Indus Valley [The British Museum]
A unit on "the growth of civilization around the Indus Valley. Users can explore the ancient Indus Valley city of Mohenjo-Daro and look at some of the artefacts found by archaeologists from this excavation." Select the "Staff Room" link at left for a teacher's guide to this website and its contents.

Indus Civilization Geography [Harappa.com]
An introduction to the major archaeological sites of the Indus Valley civilization. With maps and images.

Mojenjo-Daro: Introduction to the Site [Harappa.com]
Illustrated introduction (with map and chronology) and in-depth essay about the archaeological site of Mohenjo-Daro, by anthropology professor Jonathan Mark Kenoyer (University of Wisconsin at Madison).

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LANGUAGE
The Indus Script

ca. 2,600 to 1,700 BCE

Ancient India: Writing [The British Museum]
A unit on "the numerous scripts used in Ancient India. An 'epigraphy' activity allows users to investigate one of the undeciphered Indus scripts." Select the "Staff Room" link at left for a teacher's guide to this website and its contents.

The Indus Script [Harappa.com]
An in-depth overview of various theories concerning the origins and meaning of the Indus Valley script, with articles by and interviews with leading scholars in the field. Also includes a "dictionary" of some of the most common Indus signs.

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ART
Sculpture and Figurines

Embodying Indus Life: Terra Cotta Figurines from Harappa [Harappa.com]
With more than 70 examples of anthropomorphic and terra-cotta figurines from Harappa and other Indus civilization archaeological sites. Text by Sharri R. Clark, Ph.D., Harvard University.

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© 2009 Asia for Educators, Columbia University