Bronze Age, ca. 1,500 to 500 CE; Iron Age, ca. 500 BCE to 500 CE
ca. 111 BCE, Chinese emperor Han Wudi conquers southern kingdom of Nanyue;
"A short essay on Vietnam's geopolitical history, from pre-civilization times to the 20th century."
Arts of Ancient Vietnam: From River Plain to Open Sea [Asia
More than 100 online images reflecting "archaeological evidence [of] a Southeast Asian trading system that dates to at least the second millennium BCE and Vietnamís central place in it from earliest times. The broad distribution of bronze drums created by the early culture of Dong Son and the Sa Huynh cultureís jewelry found outside Viet Nam support Viet Namís important position in this early interchange. By the beginning of the Common Era, it is clear that Viet Nam also conducted regular exchange with India and China. Along with the advantages of these commercial transactions came the exchange of both technologies and ideas and beliefs, including concepts of statecraft and the introduction of foreign religions."
Asia, 1,000 B.C.-1 A.D. [Timeline of Art History,
The Metropolitan Museum of Art]
"Villages evolve into settled cultures and, by the middle of this period, stratified societies with centralized rule have developed on mainland Southeast Asia. The large drums produced by the Dongson culture in northern Vietnam are among the most distinctive artifacts of the period." With a period overview, list of key events, and six related artworks.
Asia, 1-500 A.D. [Timeline of Art History,
The Metropolitan Museum of Art]
"Expanding international trade characterizes this period in Southeast Asia: Indonesian outriggers travel to the East African coast; Indian ceramics and glass beads are found in Bali and on the mainland; Chinese mirrors and Roman coins have been excavated in Cambodia; and horses from the Kushans in northwest India were imported." With a period overview, list of key events, and seven related artworks.
Dongson Culture, ca. 500 BCE to 300 CE
Drum Model with Four Frogs, Dongson Culture [Timeline of Art History, The Metropolitan Museum of Art]
Elaborately incised Dongson-culture bronze drum, ca. 300 BCE to 200 CE.
of Vietnam: Chinese Colonization (200 BC-938 AD) [Windows
on Asia, Michigan State University]
"From 200 BC to 100AD, many changes took place throughout China, northern Vietnam,
and Southeast Asia as peoples migrated, and bases of power shifted and expanded.
In China, as the Qin Dynasty lost power to the Han Dynasty in 206 BC, deposed members
of the military and government began to trickle into Vietnam's Tonkin or Red River
Delta. The people who arrived in this area brought their technology, language, and
culture, beginning the Sinicization of Northern Vietnam which continued into the
ca. 39-43 CE, Chinese control briefly challenged by revolt of
the sisters Tru'ng Trac and Tru'ng Nhi
Primary Source w/DBQs Excerpts from The Complete Compilation of the Collected Writings about the Departed Spirits of the Viêt Realm: Sovereigns, The Tru'ng Sisters [PDF] [Asia for Educators]
See the Society section, below, for
more about the Tru'ng sisters.
State University's Windows on Asia for
more on the history of other Southeast Asian countries,
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