VIETNAM & SOUTHEAST ASIA: HISTORY-ARCHAEOLOGY
Bronze Age and Iron Age (Dongson Culture; Conquest by Chinese Han Dynasty; Revolt of the Tru'ng Sisters)

Bronze Age, ca. 1,500 to 500 CE; Iron Age, ca. 500 BCE to 500 CE
ca. 111 BCE, Chinese emperor Han Wudi conquers southern kingdom of Nanyue;

Vietnam [Asia Society]
"A short essay on Vietnam's geopolitical history, from pre-civilization times to the 20th century."

Arts of Ancient Vietnam: From River Plain to Open Sea [Asia Society]
More than 100 online images reflecting "archaeological evidence [of] a Southeast Asian trading system that dates to at least the second millennium BCE and Vietnamís central place in it from earliest times. The broad distribution of bronze drums created by the early culture of Dong Son and the Sa Huynh cultureís jewelry found outside Viet Nam support Viet Namís important position in this early interchange. By the beginning of the Common Era, it is clear that Viet Nam also conducted regular exchange with India and China. Along with the advantages of these commercial transactions came the exchange of both technologies and ideas and beliefs, including concepts of statecraft and the introduction of foreign religions."

Southeast Asia, 1,000 B.C.-1 A.D. [Timeline of Art History, The Metropolitan Museum of Art]
"Villages evolve into settled cultures and, by the middle of this period, stratified societies with centralized rule have developed on mainland Southeast Asia. The large drums produced by the Dongson culture in northern Vietnam are among the most distinctive artifacts of the period." With a period overview, list of key events, and six related artworks.

Southeast Asia, 1-500 A.D. [Timeline of Art History, The Metropolitan Museum of Art]
"Expanding international trade characterizes this period in Southeast Asia: Indonesian outriggers travel to the East African coast; Indian ceramics and glass beads are found in Bali and on the mainland; Chinese mirrors and Roman coins have been excavated in Cambodia; and horses from the Kushans in northwest India were imported." With a period overview, list of key events, and seven related artworks.

Dongson Culture, ca. 500 BCE to 300 CE
Drum Model with Four Frogs, Dongson Culture [Timeline of Art History, The Metropolitan Museum of Art]
Elaborately incised Dongson-culture bronze drum, ca. 300 BCE to 200 CE.

History of Vietnam: Chinese Colonization (200 BC-938 AD) [Windows on Asia, Michigan State University]
"From 200 BC to 100AD, many changes took place throughout China, northern Vietnam, and Southeast Asia as peoples migrated, and bases of power shifted and expanded. In China, as the Qin Dynasty lost power to the Han Dynasty in 206 BC, deposed members of the military and government began to trickle into Vietnam's Tonkin or Red River Delta. The people who arrived in this area brought their technology, language, and culture, beginning the Sinicization of Northern Vietnam which continued into the 20th century."

ca. 39-43 CE, Chinese control briefly challenged by revolt of the sisters Tru'ng Trac and Tru'ng Nhi
Primary Source w/DBQsExcerpts from The Complete Compilation of the Collected Writings about the Departed Spirits of the Viêt Realm: Sovereigns, The Tru'ng Sisters [PDF] [Asia for Educators]

See the Society section, below, for more about the Tru'ng sisters.

See Michigan State University's Windows on Asia for more on the history of other Southeast Asian countries, including Cambodia, Thailand, and Indonesia.

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GOVERNMENT AND ADMINISTRATION
Si Vuong (137-226 CE)

Primary Source w/DBQsSi Vuong (Shi Xie) [PDF] [Asia for Educators]
In the early third century CE, as the Han empire to the north began to crumble, in northern Vietnam the Shi family led by Shi Xie (known to later Vietnamese as Si Vuong or King Si [137-226 CE]) maintained stability and prosperity in the region.

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SOCIETY
Women Warriors

When Heroism is Not Enough: Three Women Warriors of Vietnam, Their Historians, and World History [World History Connected, University of Illinois]
"[T]he lives of women warriors are of interest precisely because they offer an opportunity to study the histories of women warriors represented by academicians, poets, revolutionaries, and scholars whose views of the 'second sex' were shaped by changing forces such as rising patriarchal or feminist writing. In this context, the lives of three Vietnamese solder-women, the two Tru'ng sisters (Tru'ng Trac and Tru'ng Nhi) and Triêu Thi Trinh have much to offer."

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© 2009 Asia for Educators, Columbia University