French Rule "Indochina" (Vietnam, Cambodia, Laos) (1862 to mid-20th Century)

Southeast Asia, 1900 A.D.-present [Timeline of Art History, The Metropolitan Museum of Art]
"Most of Southeast Asia continues to be colonized during the first half of the twentieth century: Vietnam, Cambodia, and Laos by the French; Malaysia and Myanmar (Burma) by the British; Indonesia by the Dutch; and the Philippines by the United States. Only Thailand remains independent." With a period overview, list of key events, and seven related artworks.

History of Vietnam: French Colonization (1874-1954) [Windows on Asia, Michigan State University]
"Although French colonization officially started in 1874, the French and other Europeans had as early as 1516. Portuguese ships bringing missionaries and traders were the first to arrive in Vietnam; French missionaries came in the 18th century. British, and French entrepreneurs also attempted to set up businesses and trade arrangements during the 18th and 19th centuries, concentrating primarily on the Mekong Delta."

History of Vietnam: The French-Indochina War (1945-1954) [Windows on Asia, Michigan State University]
"The French soon returned to renew their control over Vietnam. In order to do this, they immediately began appointing members of the Vietnamese upper class from the south who found communism unacceptable. Fighting began in the south in early 1946 and Ho Chi Minh found himself unable to maintain independence. In September of 1946, he was forced to sign control of Cochin China back to the French. Later that year, the French regained some power in the north but promised to set a date for the end of colonization."

Paper Trails: Connecting Viet Nam and World History Through Documents, Film, Literature and Photographs [World History Connected, University of Illinois]
"What follows is not an attempt to thoroughly explore this topic, but to offer some teaching approaches and resources connecting Viet Nam to world history via the classroom. It is divided into two parts. The first begins with an overview of Viet Nam's place in world history. This is intended only for those who wish to examine this subject in theoretical or analytical detail, with sources indicated in the notes as scholarly resources for teachers and advanced students. The second part will offer sets of documents with discussion-based questions, lesson plans, and other exercises for many of the topics raised in Part I."

At the Crossroads: Southeast Asia in WW II [World History Connected, University of Illinois]
A web resource for teachers and students created with support provided by the National Endowment for the Humanities (NEH), investigates diverse voices and perspectives to explore how global conflict transformed Southeast Asia into an arena for rival ideologies and a fulcrum for historic forces.

See Michigan State University's Windows on Asia for more on the history of other Southeast Asian countries, including Cambodia, Thailand, and Indonesia.

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Asian Revolutions in the Twentieth Century [ExEAS, Columbia University]
This website provides lecture material, teaching strategies, bibliographies, timelines, and links to other online resources for teaching about revolution and revolutionary leaders in high school, college, and university classes. See section on Mao Zedong.

1945 Declaration of Independence

Primary Source w/DBQsProclamation of Independence of the Democratic Republic of Vietnam (September 2, 1945) [PDF] [Asia for Educators]

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Striving for Modernity

Primary Source w/DBQsSelected Poems and Popular Songs Regarding the "Modern" Haircut [PDF] [Asia for Educators]

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A New Generation of Poets

Primary Source w/DBQs"Remembering the Jungle: The Words of the Tiger in the Zoo," by The Lu [PDF] [Asia for Educators]

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© 2009 Asia for Educators, Columbia University