Notwithstanding the aspects of their rule that were certainly
negative for China, the Mongols did initiate many policies
especially under the rule of Khubilai
Khan that supported and helped the Chinese economy,
as well as social and political life in China.
In order to ingratiate himself with Confucian China, for
example, Khubilai restored the rituals at court the
music and dance rituals that were such an integral part of
the Confucian ideology. He also founded ancestral temples
for his predecessors his father and Chinggis (Genghis) Khan (his
grandfather) in order to carry out the practices of
ancestor worship that were so critical for the Chinese.
And in an even greater effort to ingratiate himself personally
to the Chinese, Khubilai insisted on giving his second son,
Jin Chin, a Chinese-style education. Confucian scholars tutored
the young boy, and he was introduced to the tenets of both
Confucianism and Buddhism.
Khubilai also set up institutions to rule China that were
very familiar to the Chinese, adapting or borrowing wholesale
many of the traditional governmental institutions of China.
For example, the Six Ministries that had been responsible
for carrying out policy were retained by Khubilai's government,
as was the Secretariat, a decision-making body. And the provincial
administrative structure that organized China into provinces,
further divided into districts and counties and so on, was
not changed. The Chinese, therefore, found much of the Yuan
Dynasty's political structures to be familiar.
And finally, Khubilai's economic policies in China, at least
initially, promoted the interests of China and were quite